City in an LIDC/EDC: What are challenges that affect life in the city?

Investigate the contemporary challenges that affect life in the LIDC or EDC city, such as squatter settlements, informal sector jobs, health or waste disposal

Lagos faces challenges in housing, health, waste and jobs.


Over 60% of the population live in slums, e.g. Makoko.  Houses in Makoko are built on wooden stilts in Lagos Lagoon.  The houses (huts) are built illegally. People rely on communal toilets, but most waste goes straight into the lagoon waters – the lagoon is always full of sewage and rubbish.

Houses don’t have running water or electricity, although some people get their electricity by illegally connecting to the city’s supply. Fresh water is from communal supplies, sometimes up to 3km from some houses.

Crime rates are high.  There is one primary school, but few can afford to send their children regularly.

Inside Makoko: danger and ingenuity in the world's biggest floating slum |  Cities | The Guardian


Most people do not have access to clean water and sewers.  This leads to a range of diseases and illnesses, e.g. cholera, diarrhoea.

The stagnant water of the lagoon is a breeding ground for mosquitoes, leading the the spread of diseases, e.g. malaria.

There is a lack of health care services and many people can’t afford them.


Over 9,000 tonnes of waster are produced daily by the huge population.  Most waste is not collected, only about 40% is taken to large rubbish dumps, e.g. Olusosun.  The rubbish dumps contain toxic waste.


About 60% of people in Lagos work in informal jobs, making money any way they can, e.g. scavenging through the waste in rubbish dumps, street sellers, etc.

Informal jobs pay very little, require very long hours and have no job protection.  Street sellers stall can be bulldozed to make way for new developments.

From hawkers to criminals: how the Lagos ban on street selling hurts the  city | Cities | The Guardian