Technological developments can help to improve food security.
Genetically modified crops have specific changes introduced into their DNA using genetic engineering. They have usually been designed to be higher yielding, resistant to drought, disease or pests or of higher nurtritional value. Increasing yields and increasing the nutritional value of food improves food security which makes GM crops socially sustainable. They can also be economically sustainable if the needs for fertilisers and pesticides are reduced as this reduces the cost of food production. But, there are some concerns about the environmental sustainability of GM crops as they may reduce biodiversity as fewer varieties of crops are planted. Also GM crops may interbreed with wild plants, passing on their genes and potentially disrupting ecosystems.
This types of farming uses a nutrient solution rather than soil to grow crops. They are monitored to ensure the correct balance of nutrients which boosts crop yields. It is environmentally sustainable as compared to growing in soil, less water is required for plants to be grown. There is also a decreased risk of disease and pests meaning reduced use of pesticides. However, it is not necessarily economically sustainable as this type of farming is very expensive so it is currently only used for high-value crops. Not everyone can afford to buy these crops making it less socially sustainable as well.