The Millenium Development Goals arimed to improve lives in LIDCs. They were targets set by the United Nations (UN) in 2000 – all UN member states agreed to try to achieve the goals by 2015.
There were eight MDGs:
- Halve the number of people living in extreme poverty or suffering from hunger.
- Make sure that all children had a primary education.
- Increase the number of girls and women in education and paid employment.
- Reduce death rates in children under five years old by two-thirds.
- Reduce death rates amongst women caused by pregnancy or childbirth by three-quarters.
- Stop the spread of major diseases, including HIV/AIDS and malaria.
- Protect the environment and make sure development was sustainable, while improving quality of life.
- Make sure that countries around the world worked together to help LIDCs develop.
The Millenium Development Goals have been partially met in Ethiopia…
= goal should be met = not likely to meet goal
- population living in poverty decreased from 60% in 1995 to 29% in 2015
- unemployment still high
- 40% children are malnourished
- 28% population are food insecure or lacking essential nutrients
- 96% of children now enrol in primary school (50% in 1990)
- However, literacy rate is low (49%) showing provision is not very effective
- Very few females in secondary education
- Representation of women in government has increased from 2% in 2000 to 26% in 2015 (although close to UN target of 30%)
- Education gap is closing with 93% girls enroling in primary school (43% in 2000)
- Unemployment still higher for women
- Infant mortality reduced 97/1000 in 1990 to 45/1000 in 2015
- Malaria still accounts for 20% deaths, diarrhoea another 20%
- 65% children receive vaccinations
- Rural areas lagging behind
- Maternal mortality decreased by 23%
- 55% women now have access to contraception
- Still some social stigma around family planning
- Fewer forced pregnancies and average age of mothers is increasing
- HIV/AIDS pandemic has stabilised and new cases have declined but still 1.1 million adults living with HIV
- 100% population can now access malaria nets and it reduced its malaria incidents by 50% between 2000-2012
- 89% population live within 10km of a doctor but every doctor is shared between 3333 people
- Hydroelectric power has risen to 41% of energy
- Access to safe drinking water has risen to 69% (but waterborne diseases are still common)
- Urban areas have improved more rapidly
- Soil erosion and desertification due to drought and over-farming
- Food/other aid contributes 30-50% of total external assistance
- Still receiving $1500-2000 million in Official Development Assistance aid each year
- National debt is 21% of total GDP but has declined massively since peak of 155% in 1995